Solar cells convert sunlight directly to electricity. Photons actually bounce electrons across a barrier, creating an electrical current. It is very important the direct sunlight over a solar module or an array of solar modules. Any shadow falling directly on a solar module will reduce power.
This element have proven to be reliable source of electrical energy, however, when designing an electric system using photovoltaic modules and arrays, the system has to be reliable to be effective. The basic unit of a photovoltaic system is the photovoltaic cell. They do not consume fuel and have a life span of at least 25 years.
A module is no more than a series of photovoltaic cells wired in series or series/parallel to produce a desired voltage and current. Most cell produce about one-half of a volt. The PV cell are encapsulated within the module framework to protect them from weather and other environmental factors.
Solar modules, are designed to produce different voltages and current output. A lot of companies are now engage in the fabrication of this product, for commercial and personal used. Typically, they are flat rectangular panels that can produce from 5 to 230 watts.
Go to our Links Square at your right and click on "How many solar panels for my project", to know the quantity of panels you need for your solar energy project. This program is very easy to use, just fill the form and you will see the result.
Factors affecting modules performance
Load resistance: A load or
battery determines the voltage at wich the module will operate. It is necessary
that if a battery or
a load that operate between 11.5 and 14 volt receive a slightly higher voltage from the solar module or solar array.
A solar energy system designer should ensure that the PV system operates at a voltage close to the maximum power point of the
array. If a load resistance is well matched to a module's I-V curve, the module will operate at or near the maximum power point,
resulting in the highest possible efficiency, but, as the load's resistance encrease, the module will operate at voltage higher than
the maximum power point, causing efficiency and current output to decrease.
A module's current output is proportional to the
intensity of solar radiation to wich it is exposed.
More intense sunlight will result in greater module output.
If cell temperature rises above the standard
operating temperature of 25 degrees C, then the module
operates less efficiently and the voltage decrease.
A module operating at a temperature between 80 and 90 degrees C, loses approximately 0.5 percent efficiency per degree
centigrade rise in temperature. It is necessary some airflow under and over the modules to control the excessive heat on the solar
Shading of photovoltaic modules, will result in a
dramatic output voltage and current reduction.
Contact JD Solar for help, in determining the number of solar modules for your solar energy project. We help you with best solution.
This site was updated on 02/11/2016